The Preparation of International Class Weightlifters

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by charlie t » Fri Feb 23, 2007 3:46 pm

The Preparation of International Class Weightlifters

Ivan Abadjiev
Bulgaria


The continuously increasing athletic achievements require quicker and quicker
rates of development of the necessary motor qualities. These requirements,
for their part, will stimulate a constant perfecting of the means and methods
of preparation.

Now, as before, the average top competitive lifetime in the sport of
weightlifting is 15 years. The peaks are reached after 5-6 years, and the
beginning of the waning is after the 9th-10th year. The Soviet competitor, V
Stogov and his first rival, Charles Vinci, in the above mentioned time frame,
in the age interval 20-30 years, achieved the following results in both
classical movements: 105, 135 kg, and our competitor, Naim Suleimanov in 5
years, at 15-years of age, has already achieved 125 and 160 kg. It is
evident that the latter has developed very efficiently and is developing
faster than most other lifters.

Basic Principles underlying Bulgarian Weightlifting Methods

In his research, the Soviet scientist F.Mirson found out that the functions
of the living cell interact with its genetical apparatus to provoke the
relevant structural changes necessary for the enhancing greater functional
capabilities. Already, in his time, I.P. Pavlov had discovered that after
the breakdown of ‘overnormal’ albumin quantities in the human body an
intensive synthesis of new albumins is provoked in additional quantities, as
a consequence of which tissue mass and overall bodymass is increased.

A Soviet team of scientists succeeded in extracting a special kind of
metabolite from the muscles of animals suffering from starvation and where in
their bodies a significant protein disintegration was taking place. This
active metabolite was extracted, processed into drug form, injected in
animals, and found to improve the assimilation and to activate the synthesis
of simple and compound proteins. The end result after application of these
active metabolites is an increase in the muscle mass and weight of the
stimulated animals. Such metabolites are extracted also from animals after
exhausting physical activity.

The training process of the Bulgarian weightlifters is in conformity with the
above mentioned physiological regularities. Through increasing the training
loading the cell functions in the body are also increased and at the same
time the quantity of disintegrated proteins is also increased. In this way,
the continuously disintegrating loadings in the cycles, periods, and stages
of preparation represent a stimulus for the changes in the bodies of the
training weightlifters, which are related to their force possibilities.

The structural changes in the body and the increase of the muscle mass are
some of the agents for raising the force possibilities.

The other factor on which force and efficiency depend is long known by the
specialists, but for some reason it wasn't used adequately by many athletic
pedagogues.

Intramuscular Coordination

This problem is very well explained by Dr Zatsiorsky. Intramuscular
coordination is a process of coordinative action of the synergist and
antagonist muscles. When the synergists (working muscles) are contracting,
their antagonists must be optimally relaxed. Intramuscular coordination is
typical of people who have performed repeatedly physical movements of a
certain form, degree, character, and effort. The more repetitions of certain
motive actions, the better the intramuscular coordination of the muscles and
fibres participating in the motor action.

The lower the qualification of the athlete, the smaller number of repetitions
of the characteristic for the competitive sport movements he has done.
Intramuscular coordination is connected with economizing of the energy
demands during an action in return for non-counteraction by the antagonist
muscle. In this way intramuscular coordination is connected with the working
capacity. The better the intramuscular coordination, the higher the working
capacity. This could explain the fact that 15-year old Naim Suleymanov,
weighing 56 kg, can lift 160 kg, while some 25-30 year old lifters who are
weighing 120-130 kg can only lift 100 kg. In this case the weightlifters'
muscle mass is much bigger, but their intramuscular coordination is different
from that of Suleymanov. That is why they perform the movements heavily with
the bar, making great energy demands, but with low efficiency.

Bearing in mind the importance of the positive changes in the body as a
result of raising its function and the role of intramuscular coordination for
the increase in its efficiency, we have devised training programmes in
accordance with the above mentioned requirements for the Bulgarian
weightlifters.

MONDAY:

9.00 - 9.30 Front squat
9.30 - 10.00 Break
10.00 - 11.00 Snatch
11.00 - 11.30 Break
11.30 - 12.30 Jerk

12.30 - 13.00 Front squat
16.30 - 17.30 Jerk
17.30 - 18.00 Break
18.00 - 19.00 Snatch

19.00 - 19.30 Front squat
19.30 - 20.00 Snatch pulls each 5 times repetitions and jerk pulls 5 x 3

TUESDAY.

9.00 - 9.30 Back squat
9.30 - 10.00 Break

10.00 -10.45 Power snatch
10.45 - 11.45 Break
11.45 - 12.00 Power jerk
12.00 - 12.30 Front squat

12.30 - 13.00 Both pulls /5 x 3 each/

WEDNESDAY and FRIDAY like MONDAY
THURSDAY and SATURDAY like TUESDAY

What are the characteristics of these training programmes?

Well, they assure a great volume of work, by which is assured powerful
functioning of the working organs, as well as the execution of a large total
number of repetitions.

When powerful functioning and high number of repetitions are discussed, we
must remark that these big quantities are focused largely on the perfecting
of sport technique. The more repetitions, the more corrections are learned,
and the greater the smoothing of the movements. Technique is connected with
corrections of the movement's form and with intramuscular coordination. That
is why the large volume achieved by the Bulgarian lifters also facilitates
their technical perfection. Great athletic skill is reached not only through
applying great loads and performing big numbers of repetitions. During a
competition, together with warming up, from 3 to 7 tons are lifted by the
different categories. During the continuous training sessions over 20 tons
are lifted in one day.

So, from the above, it becomes clear that the changes in the body depend only
on the level of functioning and therefore during the training sessions, where
great tonnage is reached, more significant physiological changements should
be expected. Practically, this is not obtained. The physiological changes are
greater after competitions, especially when they are responsible for the
lifting of 3 - 7 tons. After competition the athletes are more exhausted,
with more manifested psychopathy, with diminished working capacity.

These facts show that during a competition other factors are also acting,
which are related to the athletic competitive abilities. In our opinion, that
is the factor which appears in putting the body under rather difficult
extreme conditions, called in our times the stress factor. The stress factor
is connected with emotional excitement, agitation or fear, anger,
aggressiveness. etc. It is known that in the body of an animal or a human
being put into an unusual ambience of extreme conditions a series of
physiological reactions takes place, which represent a direction to
conforming to these conditions. In those reactions the important role is
played by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), with Cannon and Ortelli
being the first who studied and investigated the role of the SNS and the
reactions of individuals exposed to stressful conditions in the laboratory.

According to the Bulgarian scientist, Prof. Sheytanov, the SNS acts directly
through the substance noradrenaline and through stimulating the adrenaline
secretion from the suprarenal gland. He was studying the latter as a
homologue of the postganglion neuron of the CNS and, therefore, in such cases
we can speak about excitation of the adrenal or sympathic system. According
to him, the normal level of adrenaline in blood is approximately 0.5
nanograms per ml. In the conditions of high stress this quantity may increase
by up to 500 ml, i.e. to increase up to 50 times. By means of hard physical
work and other stressing agents, not only cathecholamines are secreted, but
also a series of other biologically active substances. These biologically
active substances, including cathecholamines and hormones, as we said before,
participate in the adaptation of the body to the demanding conditions.

They take part in different metabolites of tissue building and power
providing. E.A.Gromov. et al., and many other scientists have found out in
their research that, during a competition, the athlete's body produces bigger
quantities of biologically active substances. This is explained by the fact
that the small volume loads connected with great efforts, accompanied by high
arousal, cause more significant physiological changes in the body of the
athletes than continuous, large volume loads which involve little effort or
psychological strain. Based on these circumstances, we identify the
competitive element in training as the main factor by which the
weightlifters' bodies will be exposed to unusually stressful conditions. We
are applying the competitive element in the training process by means of a
good arrangement of the training process and by means of the assignments of
the training plans.

Rivalry is the main power in the competitive behaviour of weightlifters
training. That is why we are directing our main efforts towards forming the
team with at least two competitors in every category. It is no wonder why the
USSR's weightlifters are developing so fast. This is occurring because very
often 5 to 6 athletes of the highest world level are competing on the
training and competition platform. The World Federation was absolutely
correct to organize a World Cup Tournament which is carried out in different
stages of the year.

The arranging of regional tournaments, national, local tournaments,
individual, and other kinds of competition events undoubtedly put the bodies
of the competitors under difficult, extreme conditions, where the stress
training factor is acting. A while ago a series of competitions was avoided
in order to avoid disturbing the preparation rhythm. Continuous and
significant restorative periods were carried out before every competition.
This led to a diminishing of the total loading quantity and delayed the
development of athletic achievements, which is one reason why massage and
other restorative means need to be used skillfully. The new principles in
preparation are connected with participation in various important
competitions without the use of restoration. Further, we included in the
training activity the conscious element, where every 15 days we organized
control training sessions under competition conditions and surroundings,
without referees and audiences.

From practice and the scientific approach it is proved that adaptive
reactions are stronger when the physical effort is exerted under conditions
of excitement or high arousal. Under conditions of physical strain, the
metabolism in the working organs of athletes is significantly different.

From the above, it becomes clear that a new basic element in the training
process represents the motivational readiness. Prof. F.Ghenov has drawn up
the problems of the motivational readiness. It is very important in what
psychological strain the athletes will enter the next training session with a
positive or a negative mood, with pessimism or optimism, with willingness to
realize the planned objectives, with fear or faith in future success. In our
country more and more preliminary undertakings are performed connected with
improving the motivating readiness. Much was written and spoken about this
problem and I dare to express here my own opinion towards it. There are
moments in which the athlete's mood is based on strong factors of the daily
routine. The mood is controlled to a big degree by fatigue. During long time
periods the competitors are training under conditions of medium or strong
fatigue. Under such and other similar conditions without the intervention of
another strong contrary factor any creative motivating readiness could not be
created. Lately, motivating through hypnosis is spoken about, but this is a
very difficult and insecure method to apply. More effective and easy to
access as methods and means for positive psychological influence are some
harmless, allowed medicines.

Medicines in the Preparation of High Level Athletes.

With the increase of training loads, with the raising of the stress moments
in the training process, by control of the psychological conditions before,
during, after training and competition more and more pharmacological means
are used.

Before and during training sessions many drugs and supplements for increasing
the working capacity, the functions of the organs and systems of the acting
athletes achieve their anabolic effect. By means of these substances,
increasing the functions of the acting organs they cause an extraordinary
decomposing of albumins in the cells of these organs and through the
retroaction of their genetical apparatus they cause synthesis of elevated
quantities of new albumins. The effect investigated by F.Mirson is obtained,
on the basis of which the muscle mass increases and this is in relation to
the increasing of force abilities. The means for increasing the working
ability are many-sided and they stimulate the CNS. They act through improving
the mediator mechanisms.

The so called adaptogens are used, which improve the conforming possibilities
of the body to the extreme conditions like heavy trainings and competitive
situa- tions. Restoring antecedents of a series of necessary substracts,
factors and cofactors for improvement of the ferment and enzyme systems,
vitamins, etc., antioxidants, removing the products of fatigue. Cardiotonics
and cardiorelaxants, economizing the oxygen consumption.

Soporifics, sedatives, controlling the emotional processes. Hormones. 1
emphasize again that many of the quoted medicines are forbidden. Here we are
discussing only the allowed ones.

Dealing with drugs is a very complicated and important process. Here
competent medical persons must be attracted. This is because this kind of
effect can be negative if wrongly applied and dosaged and can even be a risk
for the athletes's health.

Here some of the problems were exposed, namely how to optimize the
coaching-training process, where some factors in the basis of modern methods
for preparation of high level competitors were disclosed.

In conclusion, it could be stated that the training process will continue to
develop in the direction of enabling athletes to increase the stress factor
in a qualitative as well as in a quantitative sense. The quick and high-grade
restoration of the body of the high class athletes under extreme training
conditions for enabling the athlete to meet timeously the high demands of
impending training, as well as coaching, psychological, physical,
pharmacological and other means will be sought in the future.
charlie t
 

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